Secondly, this paper will consult sources which focus on the economic relationship between the Mughal Empire, Europe, and the Safavid Empire during this time period. Safavid power ended and civil wars followed, which depressed Iran's economy further and … This is due to one simple fact: Safavid Iran possessed vital geographic proximity between the highly productive Orient and consumption hungry Europe. The Safavid Empire lasted until 1736. It is survived by Iran. This phenomenon can again be observed when analyzing the dynamics involved in the exchange of western bullion for various spices, textiles, and services imported from India. Who is the longest reigning WWE Champion of all time? In regards to Russian transactions, Mathee claims “a contemporary source indicates that the Russians had to pay half to one-third of the price of the goods they received from Iran in the form of silver and gold coins.”[13] We can infer from this information that Safavid Iran maintained a trade surplus with the major players to the North and West. “The Safavid Economy as Part of the World Economy.” In, Steinmann, Linda K. “Shah ‘Abbas and the Royal Silk Trade 1599-1629.”. “The Horse Trade in Eighteenth-Century South Asia.”, Ikram, S. M., Frances W. Pritchett, and Barbara Metcalf. Given Iran’s geographic position, many transactions took place as goods were shipped East and West. their skills in making ceramics and metal goods. The other highly valued commodity is horses. By Connor J. HamelCompetitive Intelligence AnalystAccenture Federal Services. Abbas I also supported direct trade with Europe, particularly England and The Netherlands, which sought Iranian carpets, silk, and textiles. Spiritual heir to Sheikh Zahed, Safi Al-Din transformed the inherited Zahediyeh Sufi Order in… For example, maritime trade routes from Bandar Abbas to Surat saw the transport of enormous amounts of precious metals between the Safavid and Mughal empires. Some of these manufactured articles included: cotton cloth, indigo, saltpeter, spices, opium, sugar, silk cloth, yarn, salt, beads, borax, turmeric, lac, sealing wax and drugs of various kinds. Science and Technology By: Cole Brandser In 1514, the Safavid were not very technologically advanced. The geographic area that this paper will explore is highlighted below in Figure 1. These military tactics, however, had been out dated and made obsolete by the new tactics and strategies of the surrounding empires. The transport of goods and services used overland and maritime routes, some more well known than others. How much money do you start with in monopoly revolution? “Of Jewels and Horses: The Career and Patronage of an Iranian Merchant under Shah Jahan.”, Levi, Scott C. “India xiii. The purpose of this paper is to disprove this theory in three stages. The empire made Iran … Finally, referencing the previously mentioned trade surplus Mughal India maintained over Safavid Iran, there were only three commodities which Iran could offer to offset the deficit. x [V h+ f 5_ " ^ 5!SP c ]0 /h ʙiZ w IJ 'Ky ! rich on trade because of location, Iranian art flourished, strong military. Our logo, banner, and trademark are registered and fully copyright protected (not subject to Creative Commons). This exchange of bullion between the Safavid and Mughal empires portrays the complex dynamics of the Safavid transit economy. How was Safavid culture part of the empire's economy? According to Stephen Dale, “Mughal rulers had the luxury of being able merely to preside over a powerful laissez faire economy that allowed them to have what was essentially a free-trade foreign economic policy, while Shah Abbas instituted a kind of state capitalism and an Iranian mercantilism to develop and protect his state’s more fragile economic circumstance.”[16] It is important to note, however, that the extent of Safavid Iran’s economic impact does not begin or end with the reign of Shah Abbas. Enter your email address to receive notifications of new posts by email. The primary reason why the impact of the Safavid economy may have paled in comparison to larger nation states and empires is because the economy did not function in a “traditional” sense. How do you diagnose the solenoid on a 2003 Ford Focus? Safavid dynasty, ruling dynasty of Iran from 1501 to 1736, known especially for its architectural achievements and its establishment of Twelver Shi‘ism among various ethnic and linguistic groups throughout Iran as a major unifying factor. Some of the silk originated in the Orient, and the bullion originated in the West. In fact, depending upon one’s location, the prices between the two were actually comparable. Two have already been discussed: gold and silk. ECONOMY. It is in this critical time period where the foundation for modern terms such as “globalization” and “interconnected global economy” was first laid. [26] Many chose the maritime route, but those who decided on taking the overland route were often trying to maximize their profits by trading en route to their destination. [14] In regards to exports, the Mughals also had the Safavids bested in terms of the amount and type of goods and services exported. Abbas I also supported direct trade with Europe, particularly England and The Netherlands which sought Persian carpet, silk and textiles. You just clipped your first slide! Weaknesses of the Safavid Empire. [23] According to Willem Floor and Edmund Herzig, “to Iran, Qandahar was a very important source of revenue, and its importance may also explain why there were intermittent military conflicts between the Mughals and Safavids over who controlled the city.”[24] By the account of two British East India Company merchants, Richard Steel and John Crowther, in 1614: “Merchants of India assemble at Lahore, and invest a great part of their monies in commodities, and joyne themselves in caravans to passe the mountaines of Candahar into Persia, by which way is generally reported to passe twelve or fourteen thousand camels lading, whereas heretofore scarsly passed three thousand, the rest going by way or Ormus.”[25] Accordingly, we can deduce that Indian merchants used the camel as a technology by which to transport massive amounts of goods overland via the Qandahar-Isfahan route. The Persian carpet and textile industries flourished with his support, and Abbas extended a royal monopoly over silk, which was exported in immense quantities. Safavid era (1501–1729) begins a new age in the history of Iran. Therefore, Safavid Iran did not produce enough exportable goods to compensate for the large amount of commodities they were importing from the Indian subcontinent. [9] However, the areas surrounding the Caspian Sea were not always under Safavid imperial control. [8], A majority of Iran’s silk production occurred in the areas near the Caspian Sea. The Safavid Empire (1502-1736) was a Persian military state that dominated the region for two centuries and initiated one of Persia's golden ages. ­Geographical ­discoveries, in general, and bypassing the Cape of Good Hope, in particular, in South Africa, changed traditional trade routes in Iran’s international trade. The first Safavid king, Esmāʿīl I (907-30/1501-24), initiated a process of political and religious change in Persia that profoundly affected the economic structure. How was Safavid culture part of the empire's economy. The Safavid dynasty had its origin in the Safavid order of Sufism, which was established in the city of Ardabil in the Iranian Azerbaijan region. Safavid Persian Empire's national animal is the Lion, which frolics freely in the nation's many lush forests. The Safavid Empire was a theocracy; The state religion was Shi'a Islam; All other religions, and forms of Islam were suppressed; The Empire's economic strength … In exchange for the silk, Iran received a sizeable influx of gold and bullion from the West, and from Russia to the north as well. That, combined with a lavish lifestyle, military spending, and falling revenues resulted in a weak economy. A majority of Mughal exports consisted of manufactured goods, which were in high demand in Europe and elsewhere. Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later. The primary consequence of this system resulted in the mass export of bullion received from the silk trade with the West to the Indian subcontinent in an attempt to balance the trade deficit. Proceeds are donated to charity. Individual pages signify the copyright for the content on that page. Floor and Herzig, Arduous Travelling, 211. in Turkey, to train administrators to replace the traditional warrior elite. One of these empires is the Safavids. While more “traditional” economies possessed a closer balance between the amount of goods exported and imported (and thereby absorbed), Safavid Iran’s economy was comparatively unbalanced in these core aspects. Additionally, Safavid Iran’s complex relationship with Mughal India laid the foundation for some of the most important trade routes in all of Asia. As such, they were often frequented by traveling merchants and quickly became vital to profitable commercial activity for those merchants. An integral part of generating profitable commerce in Safavid territories centered around creating a hospitable and tolerant environment in which to conduct business transactions. The seventeenth century ushered in a plethora of changes in global trade patterns. [35] Elphinstone claimed that these horses were exported in “considerable numbers.”[36] This could be observed at the Indian fairs or “melas” where the horses imported were Turkoman or “Turki” breeds, from the area north of the Hindu Kush around Balkh. These fluctuating trade patterns began to generate nascent economic, political, and social trends the likes of which had never been seen before. Artisan products provided much of Iran's foreign trade.They produced textiles, ceramics, metalwork, carpet, and many other media that contributed to the development of art across the region. Rudi Mathee, “The Safavid Economy as Part of the World Economy,” in, Rudi Mathee, “Between Venice and Surat: The Trade in Gold in Late Safavid Iran,”, Linda K. Steinmann, “Shah ‘Abbas and the Royal Silk Trade 1599-1629,”, Muzzafar Alam, “Trade, State Policy and Regional Change: Aspects of Mughal-Uzbek Commercial Relations, C. 1550-1750,”, S. M. Ikram, Frances W. Pritchett, and Barbara Metcalf, “Muslim Civilization in India – Part Two: The Mughal Period, Chapter 17,” in, Derek Bryce, Kevin D. O’Gorman, and Ian W.F. There are several contributing factors which resulted in Safavid Iran’s comparatively irregular economic construction. Thus, in the Mughal era also agriculture was actually the biggest source of income. Celebrate the life of Safavid Empire from Safavid Empire. For the Mughals, a majority of their trade relations with Persia began and ended in Lahore. Encouraged trade by developing the Persian infrastructure. According to many historians, the Safavid empire marked the beginning of modern Persia. [20] Furthermore, “in the 1660s, Jean de Thévenot estimated the number of Indian merchants in Isfahan to have grown to 15,000.”[21] Clearly, Isfahan became the commercial hub for goods and services transported along Central Asia’s primary trade routes. See the bottom of each page for copyright information. Whereas, comparatively, one could argue that Kabul’s influence gravitates northward due to its proximity to the overland silk trade routes, such as the famed “Silk Road.” In order to obtain a more holistic understanding of precisely how caravans traveled throughout south, central, and west Asia, we will use the Qandahar-Isfahan trade route and the province of Balkh, in modern Afghanistan, as case studies. Safavid Persian Empire is ranked 23,814 th in the world and 20 th in Greater Middle East for Largest Furniture Restoration Industry, scoring 4,956.38 on the Spitz-Pollish Productivity Index . Indo-Iranian Commercial Relations,”. The Safavid Empire was not a conquest state: Safavid conquest did not imply a change in the form of administration. In relation to Safavid Iran’s “more fragile economic circumstance,” the Safavids managed to accumulate a “trade deficit with the Indian subcontinent, which stood in contrast to the country’s position vis-à-vis the Ottoman Empire and Russia.”[17] This is because the overarching economic strategy of Safavid Iran was to generate economic growth by leveraging its geographic position and emphasis on the transit, and not the production, of goods – with the exception of silk. For example, during the seventeenth century, horses, fruits, furs, falcons, corals, sables, bird feathers, white fur coats, mirrors, copper and iron were the principal Mughal imports from Central Asia and Russia alone. The Shah’s that followed Shah Abbas were ineffectual towards the empire. Finally, the paper will examine the trade routes used to transport goods and services in and out of Iran. Strengths of the Safavid Empire. In 1501 the Safavid Empire was founded by Ismail I. Nov 12, 1508. Early on, the Safavids were at a disadvantage to the better-armed Ottomans, but they soon closed the arms gap. When discussing the Qandahar-Isfahan route, it is important to note that this route actually starts in Lahore and not Qandahar. While silk had always been a highly sought after Persian commodity, dating back to ancient times, the Safavid era produced one of the most lucrative silk industries of the early modern world. Their religious… Start studying The Safavid Empire (MODERN WORLD HISTORY). Safavid, 220 AD, of The Safavid Empire, passed away in the sad year of 1722 by bankrupting itself and weakening its economy/army. The map pictured is part of the Perry-Castañeda Library Map Collection at the University of Texas. Safavid culture played a role in the empire's economy because 'Abbas encouraged the manufacturing of traditional products. What is the WPS button on a wireless router? “Between Venice and Surat: The Trade in Gold in Late Safavid Iran.”, ———. As is consistent with the definition of a transit economy, a majority of the aforementioned goods was never fully absorbed into Safavid Iran’s domestic economy. While more “traditional” economies possessed a closer balance between the amount of goods exported and imported (and thereby absorbed), Safavid Iran’s economy was comparatively unbalanced in these core aspects. The shah saw to it that the Armenians of New Julfa received privileged treatment. Economy in Mughal Empire was dependent on agriculture, trade and other industries. Safavid culture played a role in the empire's economy because 'Abbas encouraged the manufacturing of traditional products. When did organ music become associated with baseball? [10] Shah Abbas then used the far-reaching Armenian diaspora in order to expand the impressive Safavid silk trade well into economies and metropolitan areas all over Europe and Asia. There are several key factors which contribute to the underappreciated, yet highly valuable role Safavid Iran’s transit economy played during the development of the early modern global economy. Elphinstone observed that pastoral nomadic tribes played a central role in this trade as “intermediaries carrying goods and as suppliers of livestock.”[34] The specific livestock being referenced here is the “strong and active breed of horse” that Balkh’s Central Eurasian horse trade became famous for. uc %ü B P (}X P &J s Q H ~mt&` H L^ t : 3L ReG pC,+- C 5M u* 30 0 [31] Still, based on the firsthand accounts of the size of the camel caravans which frequented the Qandahar-Isfahan route, the sheer amount of capital being transported within those caravans, and the perpetual conflict for control of Qandahar, the overland trade routes were undoubtedly a vital part of Safavid-Mughal relations, and more importantly, Safavid Iran’s transit economy. The export aspect of Safavid Iran’s transit economy centered chiefly around the trading of silk. 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